Energy reform in the hottest cities should adhere

2022-08-15
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Urban energy reform should adhere to three directions

as the main gathering place of human production and life, cities are the main areas of energy supply and consumption. Environmentalist John McNeill pointed out that compared with the past human history, the biggest difference in the 20th century lies in the growth of population and the rise of urbanization. Because the city has its metabolic function, it introduces water, food, oxygen, and discharges sewage, garbage and carbon dioxide, so urban development will have a tremendous impact on water, land and life. Therefore, the rapid development of cities and their transformation into demographically independent entities is not only a turning point in human history, but also in environmental history

but can we think that the relationship between cities, environment and energy is simply the relationship between "looting" and "being looted"? A large number of facts and studies have proved that there is not a simple linear relationship between cities and energy consumption. On the one hand, the promotion of urbanization has led to the growth of economy and the improvement of people's living standards, thus increasing the number of energy consumption. On the other hand, it is precisely because of the continuous improvement of urbanization that the industrial organization structure, technical structure and product structure have been more reasonable adjusted, the allocation of various resources has also been further optimized, and the energy consumption has a downward trend. Even for cities of the same size, different industrial structures, urban planning layout and population structure also make energy consumption show different trends

it can be said that the relationship between energy and cities is far more complex than we thought

with the continuous progress of clean energy technology and the frequent application of digital technology in the energy field, countries are also generally seeking urban energy transformation and transformation with green environmental protection, energy conservation and efficiency as the main goals. The report of the 19th CPC National Congress proposed to promote green development, promote the revolution of energy production and consumption, build a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system, and further clarify the goal of energy reform

considering the characteristics of high-density human activities and production and construction in cities, the reform of urban energy production and consumption system in the future should adhere to the following three principles, namely, clean and low-carbon, safe and efficient, intelligent and convenient

low carbon first

even if there are all the above problems, low-carbon, as a world trend, should still be regarded as the primary direction of urban energy reform. On the one hand, it is to fulfill China's commitment to carbon emission reduction under the Paris Agreement, on the other hand, it is also to make effective use of previous policy achievements, that is, China's series of efforts around low-carbon city pilot and carbon emission trading, but its premise, It is to raise the concept of low carbon to the level of economic structure adjustment for comprehensive consideration:

the first is the adjustment of industrial structure. In recent years, China has achieved remarkable results in industrial transformation and upgrading. The proportion of high energy consumption and high pollution enterprises is becoming smaller and smaller, and the proportion of the tertiary industry in GDP is increasing, which helps to control the scale of energy consumption in terms of total amount. In the future, we should adhere to the adjustment of industrial structure, focus on the development of a new economy represented by interconnection, new energy technology, new material technology, biotechnology, etc., promote green manufacturing, improve the level of industrial production processes, improve environmental emission standards for building materials, smelting, chemical and other industries, deepen supply side reform, and gradually eliminate backward production capacity

the second is the adjustment of energy production structure. On the premise of the gradual reduction of the scale of traditional fossil energy, the future demand for new energy will be mainly met by new energy. We should increase the supply capacity of new energy, improve the combination rate of hydropower, wind energy and solar energy, adopt the highest safety standards to develop nuclear power in an orderly manner, encourage the development of distributed energy, and adhere to multi energy complementarity. We should effectively reduce power generation costs, improve urban micro power construction, and improve the local consumption rate of new energy power generation

for the eastern coastal areas, in other words, in the future, as a transitional link between fossil energy and new energy, natural gas will be an important substitute to meet energy demand. Therefore, we should strengthen the supply capacity of natural gas and expand the natural gas consumption market. Natural gas is pollution-free, which is an important way to replace bulk coal. We should encourage diversified investment in natural gas exploration and development, strengthen the exploration and development of conventional gas, tight gas and shale gas, and create a foundation for the stable supply of natural gas

thirdly, the adjustment of energy consumption structure. Specifically, strictly control the total consumption of coal, promote the substitution of electric energy, and improve the level of electrification consumption. We should increase the proportion of electric energy in urban final energy consumption and promote the substitution of electric energy in urban residents' lives, industrial production and transportation. We should reduce the total consumption of coal, reduce the utilization of loose coal, promote the cascade utilization of coal by quality, speed up the substitution of electric energy for coal-fired boilers in the industrial field, and promote new heating methods such as gas or electric heating for non central heating areas. Under the premise of maintaining the stable development of oil supply capacity, improve product quality and oil deep processing capacity, and extend the oil refining and processing industry chain. We should adhere to the principle of "replacing oil with electricity" in the field of transportation, vigorously develop the new energy vehicle industry, and further improve the ownership of new energy vehicles, especially pure electric vehicles, and reduce urban pollution emissions by using the double integral policy, the number and license restriction policy of traditional fuel vehicles, etc

similarly, we should also vigorously promote the development of the natural gas consumption market, accelerate the construction of natural gas infrastructure, build natural gas peak shaving power stations and natural gas distributed energy projects, optimize the layout of natural gas sales networks and service facilities, achieve fair access to storage and transportation receiving facilities, reduce the comprehensive use cost of natural gas, and expand the scale of natural gas consumption

energy efficiency is paramount

throughout the energy reform since China's reform and opening up, industrial development has played a leading role in it. From the glory of the early coal industry to the later prosperity of photovoltaic and wind energy industries, all reflect the deep participation of industrial changes in the energy revolution. The development of the energy industry has created huge economic benefits, reduced the cost of renewable energy power generation, and also gave China a certain say in the world's energy reform. However, the "heavy industry, light management" and "heavy scale, light efficiency" models have also made the energy reform model too extensive and too dependent on the policy environment, leaving hidden dangers for future sustainable development

how to correct this trend? That is to recall the concept of energy efficiency

for urban energy reform, energy efficiency should be emphasized. Because the city is in the final analysis the aggregation of various management means, the adjustment of the energy system must first face the various organization and management systems of the city, and adapt to the various forms of life and production in the city

for example, from the most superficial level, cities are first buildings, where high-rise buildings gather, so the management of building energy efficiency is the most basic means of urban energy management. In fact, it is the green building standard that is at the forefront of various energy efficiency standards

in the future, on the premise of ensuring the stability of urban energy supply, the production, transformation and consumption of energy should "operate efficiently without energy waste. At the same time, in the face of natural disasters or other emergencies, the energy supply can basically remain stable and have a certain adaptability

first of all, we should build a diversified energy supply system and strengthen the research and judgment of energy supply and demand situation. We will build a diversified energy security system, strengthen the construction of energy transmission and distribution networks such as oil, gas and electricity, strengthen cross regional coordination, and improve the capacity of stable energy supply. Through urban energy data link and other means, we will break the isolated islands of energy information, strengthen the research, judgment, prediction and early warning of energy supply and demand situation, and enhance the coordination ability and adaptability when energy supply and demand fluctuate. The coal storage and distribution base, oil storage depot, gas storage depot and other emergency facilities shall be reasonably arranged to improve the emergency reserve capacity

secondly, we should make full use of new technologies, new industrial processes and new energy-saving products to save energy. We should improve the energy-saving system in many fields, and make energy-saving and efficient use of energy in urban life, industrial production, transportation and construction. Specifically, we should vigorously advocate a green and low-carbon lifestyle, guide residents to use energy scientifically and reasonably and recycle waste energy, promote the use of green buildings, strengthen energy efficiency management, and strengthen the development of industrial energy conservation by recycling waste heat and pressure, industrial by-products, etc

intelligence leads

the city, a behemoth, has created countless civilizations, but at the same time, there have been various diseases. Traditional management methods seem to be increasingly unable to cope with emerging new problems. In this case, it has become an inevitable trend to use advanced technical means to continuously improve the refinement and intelligence level of urban management

therefore, we see that various information-based means such as Internet communication, big data and cloud computing are emerging in the field of public governance. The future urban energy system should also accelerate the construction of "Internet +" smart energy to make urban energy production, trading and consumption more intelligent and convenient. The "interconnection +" smart energy system should adopt the process of development from consumption to production and then to integration. Starting from parks and residential areas, it should gradually promote the energy connection of the whole city, with energy (electricity) as the core and distributed generation, energy storage and energy micro as the main elements

in the initial stage, the intelligent mode of energy consumption can be promoted, and the intelligent energy terminals can be promoted in homes, factories, etc. through information means, the remote information collection, command control, payment, etc. of electricity, heat and gas consumption can be realized, and the intelligent management of energy consumption can be realized. Further, we can optimize energy production by building an "interconnected +" energy system, strengthen the construction of peak shaving capacity of the power system, realize multi energy complementarity, and reduce the occurrence of wind, power and water abandonment

when energy and information technology are deeply integrated, the integration of energy production and consumption can be realized, and the energy interconnection of "source load storage use" coordinated development can be built, so as to make energy production and supply more diversified and energy consumption more intelligent

finally, in order to ensure that the urban energy reform can move towards a clean, low-carbon, safe, efficient, intelligent and convenient direction, it needs to be guaranteed from two aspects: institutional mechanisms and technical support

first of all, we should deepen the reform of the energy system to provide impetus for promoting energy reform. We should deepen supply side structural reform and prevent

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